The first written mention of the church dates from 1400.  From the 13th century, Žilina Castle stood near - and partly on the site of the current church - about which we have written reports from 1318 to 1454. The building was first mentioned as a church in 1423, then still dedicated to the Virgin Mary. .  The change of patronage took place later - at the end of the 16th century, when in the middle of the century the church was twice taken by Podmanickí (1540, 1548) and turned into a fortress. The very position of the church near the town unit probably respected the new fact, when the older Church of St. Štefan Kráľ did not have enough population, it was quite far from the city and served the rural population concentrated in the surrounding settlements.
Church of the Holy Trinity in Žilina with part of the square.
Around 1530, the then owner of Žilina, Burian Světlovský of Vlčnov, had a tower built next to the church as a fortress.  In 1540, Rafael Podmanický (+ 1559) completed this construction. It was originally named New Tower (today's Burian's Tower).
In the middle of the 16th century, the militants of the robber knights Ján Podmanický (+ 1545) and his brother Rafael twice occupied and burned Žilina and rebuilt the church into a fortress.  Later, the owner of the town, Mikuláš Dersffy, had it rebuilt and the church again served the church's needs. The then bishop of Nitra Zachariáš Rohožník-Mošovský (1542 - 1587) consecrated it, but already as the Church of the Holy Trinity.
In 1678, the church burned down completely during a fire , and even the bells on the New Tower melted. The church was restored in 1687 by the landowner from Žilina, the palatine Pavol Esterházy, and in 1690 it was restored by the Jesuits.
Chapel of St. John of Nepomuk on the west side of the church was added in 1762. Its main purpose was to place the tomb of God. At that time, both towers - the tower of the parish church and the New Tower - received the same Baroque roofs and put a cross on the tower of the church.
A huge fire destroyed almost the whole of Žilina on June 21, 1848. The roof of the church burned down, both towers and the entire interior of the church. Two small bells remained on the church's clock tower. The cross fell from the tower of the parish church and fell over the roof and vault to the crypts, where the coffins began to burn. A ruin remains of the parish church.  During the fire, the three largest bells on the New Tower melted. The work of destruction was completed by an earthquake on January 15, 1858. During this fire, they saved the statue of the Virgin Mary from the church. They transferred her to the church in Rosina and soon to the church of St. Nicholas in Višňov, where she remained permanently. This was probably the reason why the people of Žilina make a pilgrimage to this once their statue every year.
The destroyed church was reconstructed by Žilina's dean and pastor Andrej Lemeš with the generous help of the Nitra canonical lecturer Juraj Tvrdý (1780 - 1865) and Žilina's postman Štefan Tvrdý (1788 - 1862) and Banská Bystrica grandmaster Juraj Budatínský, according to the plans of important painter and painter of the Banská Bystrica grammar school, Jozef Božetech Klemens (1817 - 1883), who previously worked in the grammar school in Žilina. From this author also come the altar paintings that are in the church to this day.
Another fire broke out in 1886, which again damaged the newly renovated church - the roof burned down.  However, the parish bells were saved. In 1888, both towers - the tower of the parish church and the New Tower - received new roofs. The character that the tower still has today was given during the reconstruction in 1890. According to the largest bell on it, which weighed 2,336 kg, it was then named Burian's Tower.
The First World War also marked the churches of Žilina. In August 1917, all three bells from Burian's Tower were used for the production of military equipment. It was not until 1924 that this tower received six new bells. On this occasion, there was a big celebration in Žilina on August 15 - Andrej Hlinka (1864 - 1938) consecrated the bells, which were pulled to the tower that day. The parish church also received a new organ, made by the company Bratia Rieger in Krnov, in 1936.
In 1941, the parish office acquired a marble statue of St. for the facade of the church. Anny, whose author was the academic sculptor Fraňo Štefunko (* 1903) from Turčianske St. Martin.
In 1941 and 1942, they completed the construction of the Burian Tower.  At that time, they made a new walkway on it with columns that connect the arches.