The prehistoric settlement of the village is known from the left terrace of the stream between Ardanovce and Šalgovce. The survey found fragments of pottery, stone tools (axes, chipped industry) and traces of buildings - prehistoric settlements from the Late Stone Age - the Neolithic and Eneolithic. We know the prehistoric settlement from the surroundings of the village, e.g. from Orešany and Radošina.
The first written mention of the village dates from 1317. Ardanovce appears in it under the name Jardan. According to the linguist Ján Stanislav, the name of the village comes from the personal name Jardan. Ardanovce was at that time a curial village - aristocratic property.
From 1332, Ardanovce was the property of the Nitra diocese. The property of the Nitra diocese was organized in four, later eight estates called oficiolates. The officiolate in Radošina administered the episcopal / later chapter / property in Ardanovce.
Roman Catholic Church dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel, one of the seven angels in the angelic hierarchy, could have been built in the village at the turn of the 12th - 13th centuries. For churches dating from the early fude period, the location on the hills outside the village is characteristic because they served for more surrounding villages. More detailed dating of the church building can only be verified by architectural research. A stone shrine with a mascaron has been preserved in the church from the 15th century. At the beginning of the 16th century and during the 18th century, the church underwent a radical reconstruction. A tower was added and the nave of the church was vaulted with a new vault. Tombstones were placed in the paving of the church, which marked the graves of local peasants.
The parish near the church was built in 1787. In 1804 it was rebuilt in the Classicist style. From the beginning of the 15th century we know the name of a Roman Catholic priest in the village of Mattheeusa. At that time, the settlement of Dvorec / Odvar, Odvarc / is also mentioned near Ardanovce.
In the census of the income of the Esztergom archbishopric from the years 1571 - 1573, Ardanovce appears under the name Ardanocz. In 1598, there are 24 houses in the village. After the devastating Ottoman invasion of central and southwestern Slovakia in 1599, Ardanovce was looted and burned. In 1600, not a single house is mentioned in the village.
Ardanovce was in the past an agricultural village. Suitable natural and climatic conditions predestined this region for the cultivation of vineyards. They are interesting from an ethnographic point of view (costume, courtyards, paid gates).
In 1785, the village had 44 houses and 244 inhabitants, who, in addition to agriculture, also engaged in burning lime.
In 1808, the village was called Ardánocz and Ardánowce. In the second half of the 19th century (1866), 85 people became ill in Ardanovce from cholera, which spread throughout the country, of which 24 people died. At the census in 1900, Ardanovce had 277 inhabitants. Of that number, 259 (93.6%) were Slovaks.